Bronchopulmonary system changes in the employees of nuclear industry
Lyudmila I. Shvayko1, Viktor Sushko1 and Kostiantyn Bazyka1
1Department of Pulmonology of Radiation Consequences Treatment Division, State Institution “National Research Centre for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”, Kyiv, Ukraine
The aim of the study was to analyse the ionizing radiation contribution to formation and realization of the effects in bronchopulmonary system of the employees of nuclear industry.
Under the supervision were 463 men who participated in the work performed on the Object “Shelter” of Chernobyl NPP, aged 19 to 59 years. The external exposure dose was 25.27 ± 0.841 mSv, the dose of internal radiation (by swallowing and inhalation) - 0.67 ± 0.28 mSv.
The monitoring of the employees of nuclear industry in dynamics did not establish clinical signs of deterioration of the bronchopulmonary system, but showed the changes in lung function test parameters in individuals older than 45 years (p <0.001), smokers (p <0.001).
The diagnostic bronchoscopy showed the catarrhal endobronchitis (51.8%) and pathological changes of the bronchial epithelium such as violation of the basement membrane (47.9%), the epithelium (39.6%), the presence of basal membrane sclerosis (37.5%) and signs of inflammation (20.8%), these changes were detected more often in patients receiving irradiation dose> 20 mSv compared with irradiated at a lower dose p <0.05.
Morphological changes of the bronchi and the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen, Ki-67, p53, P63 in the epithelium of bronchi allowed to allocate 2.6% of those with the presence of proliferative atypical bronchitis, which is optional precancerous condition requiring clinical supervision. The peculiarities of structural changes in the cells of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial mucosa in in persons exposed to ionizing radiation in occupational limits were established for the first time.