Significance of contacts in the manifestation of tuberculosis as an infectious disease
Ljiljana Simonovska1 and Mirjana Trajcevska1
1Department of Tuberculosis, Institute for Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Skopje, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the importance of contact in the manifestation of tuberculosis, ie what age, which forms manifest tuberculosis and what is the time period from contact to manifestation of tuberculosis.
For this purpose, the histories of 88 cases of tuberculosis in persons who have been in contact with tuberculosis, for the period 2010-2012.
The contact was comfirmed at 7.5% of analyzed TB patients.
47.7% were male and 52.3% were female. 28.4% belonged to the age group of 0-14 years, 54.5% of the age group 16-44 years and 17% were older than 44 years.
92% were with pulmonary, and 8% with extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
M. tuberculosis from sputum was isolated at 44.9%.
The source of infection in a close family member was in 76%. In 12% source was another member of the family (grandmother, grandfather, aunt). In 12% source was a roommate from the prisoner’s room, or classmate or neighbor.
In 75%, the source of infection in the family was one of the parents, in 15.6% was brother or siste, and at 9.4 % was one of the spouses.
Analyzing the time period for manifestation of tuberculosis after the contact, in 56.7% tuberculosis is diagnosed to 3 months after the contact, in 23.3% in a period of 3 to 6 months, and after 6 months tuberculosis manifested in 20% of the respondents.
Conclusion: Contact was confirmed at 7.5% of analysed TB patients. In 76% of the cases source was in the family, and the most common source was one of the parents (75.6%). After the contact tuberculosis usually manifests in the first three months (56.7%). Because the tuberculosis can manifest even after 6 months of contact, there is a need for contact tracing in an extended period of time.